Thursday, January 23, 2020

Essay --

The tensions that would ultimately produce the 2013 shutdown began to take shape after Republicans, strengthened by the emergence of the Tea Party, won back a majority of the seats in the House of Representatives from the Democrats in 2010.[19][20][21][22] Even at that time, some conservative activists and Tea Party-affiliated politicians were already calling on congressional Republicans to be willing to shut down the government in order to force congressional Democrats and the President to agree to deep cuts in spending and to repeal the Affordable Care Act, which had been signed into law only a few months earlier. Former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich, a Republican who had presided over Congress during the last government shutdowns 15 years earlier, said in April 2010 that if Republicans won back control of Congress in the 2010 election, they should remove any funding for the Affordable Care Act in any appropriations bills they passed. Gingrich said Republicans needed to "be re ady to stand on principle" and should refuse to fund the new healthcare law even if their refusal would result in a shutdown of the government.[23] As the November 2010 congressional elections drew near, Rep. Lynn Westmoreland, a Republican from Georgia, said that if the Republicans won a majority of seats in the House, they would pass appropriation bills that the President would veto, leading to a government shutdown. Westmoreland told supporters: "We have put Band-Aids on some things that need to be cleaned out. That is going to take some pain. There's going to have to be some pain for us to do some things that we've got to do to right the ship."[24][25] Sen. Mike Lee of Utah, then running for office as the Republican Party's nominee, said that altho... ... and to curtailing the Environmental Protection Agency's authority to enforce the Clean Air Act and carbon dioxide emissions.[29][31] House Republicans gave Speaker John Boehner an ovation when he informed them that he was advising the House Administration Committee to begin preparations for a possible shutdown.[32] A budget deal was agreed to less than two hours before a shutdown would have begun.[33] Several similar funding crises resulting from disagreements over budgetary policy ensued in the following three years, with shutdowns being narrowly averted by last-minute deals each time.[34][35][36][37][38] Congressional Republicans remained committed to eliminating or undermining the Affordable Care Act, taking more than 40 largely symbolic votes passing bills to repeal or defund the act which the Democratic-controlled Senate rejected or refused to consider.[39][40]

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Research and Account Essay

Two carers were moving a service user from a bed to a chair using a hoist. they placed the hoist sling underneath the service user and then attached it to the hoist. Whilst the hoist was stationary one carer turned away to pick up the service users slippers and as a result the service user fell forward to the ground. The service user suffered wounds on their scalp and bruising to their head. The service user was taken to hospital but passed away 10 days later. It was found that the sling loop fixings were wrongly adjusted and a safety pommel was not used. In this report the carers were lacking in training and guidance to use the hoist from the company they worked for. One carer was not focused on the task of the service user being in hoist as she took on another task to get the slippers which meant she wasn’t aware of what the service user was doing. If the correct equipment was used and adjusted properly then that would have prevented the fall and death of this service user. When assisting a service user with a task whether it be small or large we always need to carry out the task using the correct equipment, and the correct members of staff to be present. Also our full attention should be on the task at all times and aware of what the service user is doing and what is happening around them. if not doing so then this could result in the service user falling or being injured and equipment could be damaged. Carers should always carry out a visual check of the equipment prior to using and if a problem arises should not be used and reported to the relevant person. Report 2 Michael Shorthouse suffered from Down’s Syndrome, learning difficulties and dementia. He moved into Cedars Care Home in May 2007 but, despite he’s families pleas over he’s treatment, within five months his health had deteriorated so much he had to be admitted to hospital. Whilst in hospital doctors found that he was seriously dehydrated, had developed acute kidney problems and pressure sores, and had aspiration pneumonia, which is an inflammation of the lungs caused by breathing in foreign material like food or liquids. Michael Shorthouse’s condition improved once he had been transferred to hospital and then moved into a different nursing home, but later died in 2010. Cedars Care Home was reported to Social Services and the Safeguarding Adults Office (SAO) which investigated and found that there had been overall neglect in the care given to Michael. Two years after Michael was admitted to hospital, the care home hadn’t improved and was given a zero- star rating in a Care Quality Commission inspection.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Crabb Theory Critique - 1057 Words

Crabb and Hawkins Theory Critique Sherrie Miller Liberty University COUN 507 201220 B03 January 29, 2012 Dr. Timothy Heck January 29, 2012 Introduction/Summary The integrative Christian perspective of Lawrence Crabb in his book, Effective Biblical Counseling is enlightening on the simplest level. The overall presentation and concept creates much introspection of motives, which threaten ones biblical thinking and behavior patterns that create relationship and personal problems. There are many strengths and positive points to adopting this counseling style the most prevalent being the focus on restoring others to God through correcting the assumptions which have been tainted by living in a sinful world as sinful people, back†¦show more content†¦Personal Reflection and Application As I read this text by Dr. Crabb, I was very challenged in my deficit motivations in which I have been functioning under since my divorce. My fear of rejection causes me to allow others to treat me negatively way beyond that which is healthy. I realized that my motive for leaving my spouse was biblical in that I believed then and now that it was the onl y way to help point him toward true repentance and wholeness in Christ. I was challenged to face my patterns of attempting to find happiness, soothing of self, rather then joy, godly contentment in the midst of trial (NIV, James 1:2-8). Although due to the spiritual abuse my spouse had imparted on me created a fear in me to trust my faith or my ability to understand God’s will for me an area that would be defined as a new motivation deficit under Dr. Crabb’s theory. I believe I would need to process and redefine everything that happened rather then just claimed as a deficit to untangle it from the truth faith I have, which consequently led me to seek the counsel of a church counselor this week. I see the value in an integrated approach, which I value. I agree with him that it is important to check the psychological approach/theory against scripture to be sure they agree. I believe God has created all of us unique physiologically and set each of us into unique patterns of life to leadShow MoreRelatedEssay on Theory Critique: Crabb and Hawkins1241 Words   |  5 PagesTheory Critique: Crabb and Hawkins Liberty University Summary of the Content Both authors express many overlapping elements of revealed truth in regard to the process of counseling and the problems that are derived in the life of clients and people suffering from disorders and psychologically unhealthy mindsets. Hawkins utilizes a theory of 5 concentric circles defining the human psyche and physiology. Hawkins goes on to relay his theory of counseling that utilizes 4 phases in which the counselorRead MoreTheory Critique of Crabb and Hawkins Essay826 Words   |  4 PagesTheory Critique of Crabb and Hawkins Jeremy Poling Liberty University Integration Dr. Crabb suggests that there are four viewpoints to integrating spirituality and psychology. The first being â€Å"Separate but Equal† This viewpoint ascertains that psychology and spirituality do not mix any more than if a person needs a filling for a cavity or the excising of their wisdom teeth, they do not peruse the scripture for direction the person goes to a dentist. This view is not solid for its veryRead MoreChristian Counseling and Secular Psychology 1320 Words   |  6 PagesTheory Critique In our fast passed and ever changing society, personal experiences built up over time and often make life difficult to deal with over time. 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They are notRead MoreCritique of Crabb Hawkins738 Words   |  3 PagesA Critique of Two Theories Betty Finney Liberty University COUN 507 Summary Dr. Crabb ‘s model integrates theology and psychology and refers to it as, â€Å"Spoiling the Egyptians (Crabb, 1977). His approach geared more to sound biblical principles and doctrine. I researched â€Å"Spoiling the Egyptians†, as to, I was curious about the scripture base. Spoiling the Egyptians refers to Exodus 12:40-42, as God watched over the Israelites as they went through the wildernessRead MoreTheory Critique1539 Words   |  7 PagesA Critique of Two Theoretical Models: Crabb and Hawkins Amy E. Yesalavich Liberty University COUN 507-B09 Dr. Alan Cheney May 27, 2012 Summary Psychology has been primarily viewed as a methodical system that seeks empirical evidence to explain nature, while theology is often viewed as reasoning based on man’s eternal destiny as discussed in biblical teachings. 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The best way to establish a model of counseling is to compare and contrast several different counseling practices and carefully evaluate their individual methods, goals, premises, strategies and theories. Larry Crabb ‘s perspective on the goal of Christian counselingRead MoreChristian /Counseling2553 Words   |  11 Pagesthat Dr. Crabb is very intriguing a very intellectual writer and has a way of convincing the reader with his philosophies. I will discuss the four perspectives: Goal of Christian Counseling, Basic Concepts, Basic Strategy, and Developing a Counseling Program in the local Church as recorded in Effective Biblical Counseling. Then will Compare and Contrast the assigned articles listed in the course. Goal of Christian Counseling Dr. Crabb, stated,

Monday, December 30, 2019

Should We Use A.D. or C.E.

The controversy over whether to use AD and BC (or A.D. and B.C.) or CE and BCE (C.E., B.C.E.) when referring to dates burns less brightly today than it did in the late 1990s when the divide was fresh. With some rather heated debate, authors, pundits, scholars, and literary style masters took one side over the other. Decades later, they remain split, but the consensus seems to be that the decision to use one or the other is a personal or organizational preference.  The same applies to the use of periods: use or dont use them, based on personal or organizational preference. The material controversy surrounded the implied religious connotations: CE and BCE are often used  by those of faiths and backgrounds who dont worship Jesus, or in contexts where it makes no sense to refer to Christianity—such as in historical research. AD and CE: The Birth of Jesus AD,  the abbreviation for the Latin Anno Domini and first used  in the 16th century, means in the year of Our Lord, referring to the founder of Christianity, Jesus of Nazareth. CE stands for Common Era or, rarely Christian Era. The word common simply means that it is based on the most frequently used calendar system, the Gregorian Calendar. Both take as their starting point the year when 4th-century Christian scholars believed Jesus Christ was born, designated as AD 1 or 1 CE. By the same token, BCE  stands for Before the Common Era,  (or Christian Era) and BC  means Before Christ.  Both measure the number of years before the approximate birthday of Jesus. The designation of a particular year in either set has identical values. In other words, today Jesus is believed to have been born somewhere between 4 and 7 BCE, which is equivalent to 4 and 7 BC. In usage, AD precedes the date, while CE follows the date, whereas both BC and BCE follow the date—so, AD 1492 but 1492 CE, and 1500 BC or 1500 BCE. William Safire at the Dawn of the Controversy At the height of the controversy in the late 1990s, American journalist William Safire (1929–2009), a longtime  writer for the On Language column in The  New York Times Magazine, polled his readers about their preference:  Should it be B.C./A.D. or B.C.E/C.E., in deference to Muslims, Jews and other non-Christians? Disagreement was sharp, he said. American Yale  professor and literary critic Harold Bloom  (born 1930) said: Every scholar I know uses B.C.E. and shuns A.D. American lawyer and founder of Kol HaNeshamah: The Center for Jewish Life and Enrichment Adena K. Berkowitz, who, in her application to practice before the Supreme Court was asked if she preferred in the year of Our Lord on the certificates date, chose to omit it. Given the multicultural society that we live in, the traditional Jewish designations—B.C.E. and C.E.—cast a wider net of inclusion, if I may be so politically correct, she told Safire. By nearly 2 to 1, other scholars and some members of the clergy who responded to Safire agreed with Bloom and Berkowitz. As to everyday citizens, opinions were sharply divided. David Steinberg of Alexandria, Virginia, said he found  BCE a strained innovation requiring an explanation in most of America.  Khosrow Foroughi of Cranbury, New Jersey, spoke of calendars:  Jews and Muslims have their own calendars. Muslims have a lunar calendar reckoned from A.D. 622, the day after the Hegira, or flight of the Prophet Mohammed from Mecca to Medina. The Jewish calendar is also a lunar one and is the official calendar of the State of Israel...The Christian or Gregorian calendar has become the second calendar in most non-Christian countries, and as this is the Christian calendar, I cannot see why before Christ and in the year of Our Lord would be objectionable. On the contrary, said John Esposito of Georgetown, a leading student of Islam: Before the Common Era is always more acceptable. Safire himself decided to stick with BC; because Christ, in American usage, refers directly to Jesus of Nazareth as if it were his last name and not a title conferring Messiah-hood, but he chose to not use A.D. Dropping any notation at all for years in the common era, Safire said: Dominus means lord, and when the lord referred to is Jesus, not God, a religious statement is made. Thus, the year of Our Lord invites the query Whose lord? and were in an argument we dont need. Style Guides on Religious Neutrality The choice may be up to you and your style guide. The 17th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style (published in 2017) suggests that the choice is up to the writer and should be flagged only if the customs of a specific field or community are being violated: Many authors use BC and AD because they are familiar and conventionally understood. Those who want to avoid reference to Christianity are free to do so. In terms of secular journalism, the 2019 version of the Associated Press Stylebook uses B.C. and A.D. (using the periods); as does the fourth edition of the UPI Style Guide, published in 2004. The use of BC and BCE is commonly found in articles concerning academic and lay historical research—including ThoughtCo.com—but not exclusively. Despite rumors to the contrary, the entire BBC has not dropped the use of AD/BC, but its Religion Ethics department, which prides itself on providing religion-neutral stories, has:   As the BBC is committed to impartiality, it is appropriate that we use terms that do not offend or alienate non-Christians. In line with modern practice, B.C.E./C.E. (Before Common Era/Common Era) are used as a religiously neutral alternative to B.C./A.D. -Edited by Carly Silver Sources Curtis, Polly. Reality check: has the BBC dropped the terms BC/AD? The Guardian, September 26, 2011.  Ã‚  Hastings, Chris. BBC turns its back on year of Our Lord: 2,000 years of Christianity jettisoned for politically correct Common Era. Daily Mail, September 24, 2011.  9.34: Eras. Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition. University of Chicago Press, 2017.  UPI Stylebook Guide To Newswriting, 4th edition. UPI, 2004.  Safire, William. B.C./A.D. or B.C.E./C.E.? The New York Times, August 17, 1997.  The Associated Press Stylebook 2019: and Briefing on Media Law. Associated Press, 2019.

Saturday, December 21, 2019

Childhood Abuse A Child s Intellectual Growth And The...

Introduction Early child abuse poses threats on a child’s intellectual growth and the potential of developing psychiatric disorders such as eating disorders later on within adolescent stages. Eating disorders affect up to 24 million Americans and 70 million people worldwide. 1 in 5 women struggle with an eating disorder or disordered eating. It is estimated that 90% of those who have eating disorders are women between the ages of 12 and 25. The purpose of this study is to explore the possible associations between early childhood abuse which includes, physical, emotional, sexual, verbal and psychological abuse and it’s association within adolescents who suffer from various†¦show more content†¦All 12 articles that will be further discussed are all peer reviewed and pertain closely to the topic of childhood abuse and eating disorders. In a research study conducted by Neumark-Sztainer , Mary Story, Peter J. Hanna, Trish Beuring and Michael D. Resnick ( 1999), It was noted that questions pertained to first, whether or not individuals who experienced abuse are at higher risk for disordered eating than others who have not experienced abuse and if so, whether the increased risk was due to the experienced abuse or to the overall disturbances in family dynamics and second, the level of risk in developing a disordered eating that other types of abuse may have among adolescents (Neumark- Sztainer et al., 1999) The study population included a representative sample of 9,943 Connecticut public school students in grades 7, 9, 11 who participated in a state-wide anonymous survey of adolescent health from 1995-1996. It was a 225-item comprehensive assessment of adolescent health, health behaviours, and associated risk and protective factors. After data collection, the analysis of the data was done separately for boys and girls. Sexual abuse was strongly associated with disordered eating among both girls and boys. More Boys than girls who experienced sexual abuse reported disordered eating. Physical abuse was also strongly associated with disordered eating

Friday, December 13, 2019

Oral History Documentaries Free Essays

string(44) " people into the modern society \(Shipek\)\." Oral History Documentaries are Human Traditions, how man live and what he believes. In essence it transcribes what is in man, his dignity as a human person and his continues search of himself. These human traditions are written in autobiographies or in memories or diaries and journals. We will write a custom essay sample on Oral History Documentaries or any similar topic only for you Order Now Sometimes re-echoed in ideologies (patterns of our beliefs and practices in a human society) by our memories. As Marcovici sited that our remembrance (memory as part of ideology that has a power in relation to what society we reproduce) prevails our deduction of the past over the present. In the acts of meanings it includes all experiences in a world of meanings, images, social bonds, what man would like to become and what he is afraid to become. It is important that we understand the past so we could act on moral choices about our present. Oral history is also all our personal histories into a larger collective histories. With the abounding technologies found in the internet, oral history finds in a new form in digital story telling. Facts in which have been encoded in the most ordinary and common places. Oral histories bring to our sense of the present of man’s dominion over greed and forces of nature: Below is what oral histories bring to our sense of our present world in terms of man dominion over greed in the documentaries At the River I Stand. It tells about a dramatic climax of the Civil Rights movement, a local labor dispute that became a national issue and the reason behind the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. at Memphis in 1968. â€Å"I am a man† is more than an ideology it is a fact and a simple but venerable truth. And because I am a man, a rational creature, I cannot be taken as a second class citizen. The 1,300 African American sanitation exploited workers (works to collect garbage) demands for a full exclusion in American life. AFSCME leadership march a 65 day strike. This excellent film is a 58 minute documentary which will inspire the viewers to free themselves of any racial and economic injustice. Just by observing the profound determination of this ordinary people as formed by a racist society as the lowest caste of human beings (David Appleby) one would be able to understand the simple basic need of man which is respect despite the world of greed. This oral history also inspired James Cleveland in his unforgettable quotes â€Å"one more river to cross before I lay my burden down†. This memory happens in Memphis in the most ordinary places and days. The commonplace called street but coincided with the action that hoped to rebuke the future of economic injustice because of the greediness of few due to prejudices and racism. The person who seems to be frivolous and trivial marked their way to civil rights movement, as they raise their placards with these simple words â€Å"I am a man†. A word that is in the past but is still as true as the present and contains the hopes for the future. As simple as what a jazz musician R. Roland Kirk that every time he plays his saxophone in a concert he always began by saying that this is not just a sideshow (it is more than that). His music should penetrate into his white American audience and in his tune deliberately re-echoes the inequality of men due to racial discrimination, an injustice and inequities that still plaques our society. (Basso) History in American Age of Popular Culture makes us understand the past so we could ponder the moral issues about the or rather our choices in the present. It is one way of collecting our personal histories into a larger collective history. History takes place in a certain location because a place is the first of all existence. One cannot exist without a place. However there are places that stink with stinginess and greed. Wisdom in places is a common place but it is where history takes a place in the realm of this world. According to the autobiography of Delfina Cuero an Indian who had lived in Mission Viejo since her childhood years that Indians had to move from place to place to hunt or when the white men comes. In her narrative with the places and plants and things that they ate probed the authenticity of her claim that they were the first settlers in San Diego, California. Though the mountains were cut and the old trees where they built their houses with â€Å"tamu† a kind of reed, she could still recall the places and events that had taken place. Her vivid memory made it easy for the author Florence Connoly Shipek to write her life story. In the introduction the author made in known that the work is to research for the Mission Indian Claims. However, none in the reservation villages can be found a single surviving coastal Indians. The threefold division of the first settlers makes it difficult to locate search. Upon hearing Delfina’s story it was discovered that in 1900 to 1910 Dieggueà ±os (Spanish term for Kumeya’y people) Indians (means those who are attached to the San Diego Mission) had lived in Mission Valley and in various places around San Diego wherein it is now called 13th and 17th around K Street. The anthropological study is to find out the authenticity of the life of Delfina of which the later was able to prove without hesitation and malice. As the story goes we learned that they are poor, most of the time hungry but cheerful catholic people. Despite of the lack of written record the study paved its way through the way the Indians lived during those years. The narrative life of Delfina shows the destruction of Indian self sufficiency on the land, the lost of the Indian society, culture and religion. It also narrates the very slow pace of integration of this people into the modern society (Shipek). You read "Oral History Documentaries" in category "Papers" Delfina’s story will always be looked upon. The success of the work promises a good life for the Digueà ±os children or next the generation of these Indians to come. Oral histories bring to our sense of the present of man’s dominion over forces of nature: A documentary film by Spike Lee an African American director – When the Levees Broke: A requiem in Four Acts: Is a heart-rending story of those who survived the devastating ordeal of the destruction of New Orleans. The film also looks at a city that has triumphed over its ordeal because of the resilience of its community, surviving death and amidst the ruins they find strength. A sign of the New Orleaneans rich cultural legacy. The spirit of new Orleaneans says Lee is indomitable – these people are accustomed to hardships, they are fighting for their lives. Again man was put to test: Man as always have dominion over the forces of nature. They will never disappear in this planet. Oral history from different interview cleared out that the reason why the city is 80 percent underwater is not because of the hurricane Katrina but it was the breach on the embankment of the river. Lee also mentioned the U. S. government sluggish response to the problem of the poor African American citizen. His identity again in his sense of place re-echoed inequality among men. His resilience was deeply rooted on earth and in his consciousness that it is his instinct to survive no matter what. Man therefore is still the master of the created world. Lee incorporates in his film a musical culture that is only driven by pure passion and honesty. Their identity has persisted. Their voices and songs are strong and firm. The heart of the marvelous film is centered on the president of the most powerful country indifference and oversight in relation to the destruction of New Orleans compared to catastrophic war in other countries. It explored the real attitude of the rich towards the poor of the world and the depth of its neglect. The film shows the damning picture of Bush’s America in relation to a state in calamity which is only skin deep concern. An act which shows indifference not to the race but to the socio economic state of a person. The film also portrays the lost culture of its people. The title of the film connotes the fact that it is not the hurricane that devastated New Orleans: a When the Levees Broke documentary re-affirms the cause of the catastrophe that happens to this American Africans, poor of the most powerful country of the world. It is not the hurricane that destroys New Orleans, But, the real cause was the breach of the embankment of the river. The most difficult part of the film making is asking people questions about the incidence because these are the same people who have lost a home or a love one. However, it is Lee’s job or duty to ask those difficult questions. A question that stirs up feelings and make people break down (Lee). Although the intention is to have people talk about how it can make changes in their own perspective about life. The outrage for the 45 million African-Americans of these Euopean journalists jumps on Lee as if he was the spokesperson of this neglected community which is being treated by the almighty U. S. A. as a third world country. It was the time that the film director of this story decided to do it. Never did the federal government neglected its own citizen who needed help. Lee even criticized when a horrific earthquake hits Indonesia, and in two days the US government was there. Asking the question did you see the distance between Indonesia and the New Orleans? Only one fourth of the population is there. The New Orleans black citizens were dispersed in other 46 states, they wish to come home and work but there got to be no place for them. These poor Americans loose their home to a seemingly a natural disaster. It is hoped that the oral history documentary will remind the U. S. that New Orleaneans is not over with the plight. They in fact need help. The film will also determine the pros and cons over what happened to New Orleans as a definitive moment to the history of America. It is hoped that the film will be and elegy for the lost culture of the inhabitants of New Orleans real state in relation to the calamity and may give an impressive importance of our new century (Fraser and ). A life story is an oral unit of social interaction (Linde). These are coming from interviews and can be written as autobiographies. A biography ends till the end of someone else life. A biographer looks for younger self and an ideological conversion after the passage of many years. He accounts for the difference of the subject and the writer and claim he have the whole stories. It also tells the importance of the subject. The 9/11 attacks on the WTO and Pentagon cancelled all major networks to provide continuous coverage of the event (Caughy). However, the news agenda was only on the subject that is asked to be focused. We are today in the digital knowledge, a capability of sending digitally coded information. Intranets were linked to cheap regulated public telephones that kept labor rates low. Net users acted to break down barriers which made it possible for the massive sharing of files like the World Wide Web. Community based nets provide access to the public to which many international and non-governments institutions links their networks. Digital Story telling has truly taken its ground in the Internet. Cyberactivism changes the course of history in a way it disseminate knowledge and stories. Conclusion and reflection of consequences of Digital Story Telling to Oral History Documentaries: Story telling is a very intimate gesture of intimacy, one listens and the other gives confidence to the recipient. Oral histories based on traditional documentaries are facts based on the actual experiences of man. The consequence of digital story telling to oral history is the easy access and immediate control of the written facts of the documents. If not properly controlled could lead readers and listeners into error. The sense of documentaries in our life is to use this knowledge as a tool in order to know where we lead. Past experiences is needed in order to open the gates of tomorrow and make the present a life worth living. Man’s constancy to change needs a journal of his life in order not to get lost. Loosing a culture is loosing oneself. The rich experience of human history is the sublime reality of his existence. Though oral history documentary is sown with facts, digital story telling though there is a relative cyber activism may lead truth to some manipulations which may cloud the truths and could give information which is only beneficial to a few. Man’s history always underlines who are the strong and the weak. Though both are man, the least becomes a lesser being in terms of his presence in a civil society. It is the mighty that continuous to flourish. In this world of indifference history reflects the downfall of the greedy as if someone, stronger than nature dictates the course of history for the whole humankind. In some way, our life story though we may have choices is or was predestined. How to cite Oral History Documentaries, Papers

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Galileo Probe Essay Example For Students

Galileo Probe Essay After a six year journey through the solar system and being inexorably accelerated to a speed of 170,700 km/hour by Jupiters tremendous gravitational pull, the Galileo Probe successfully entered Jupiters atmosphere on 12/7/95. During the first two minutes of this most difficult atmospheric entry ever attempted, near-probe temperatures twice as hot as the Suns surface and deceleration forces as great as 230 times the acceleration of gravity at Earths surface were produced as the spacecraft was slowed down by Jupiters atmosphere. The Galileo Probe and Orbiter separated on July 13, 1995 and both arrived at Jupiter on slightly different trajectories. The Galileo Orbiter successfully became the first spacecraft to enter an orbit around Jupiter a few hours after the probes successful descent into the atmosphere. The Probe apparently entered a rather special location on a quite non-uniform world. Ground-based telescopic observations were undertaken to determine the appearance of the Galileo Probe entry site (6.5 degrees North Latitude, 4.5 degrees West Longitude) at the time of entry and to determine the variability of this location on the planet. An important goal of these observations was to place the Galileo Probe results in the context of Jupiter as a whole. The Probe entered Jupiter near the edge of a so-called infrared hot spot believed to be a region of reduced clouds. New Data Suggest Galileo Probe Found a Jovian Dry Spot Amid Wetter Whereabouts. Jupiter has wet and dry regions, according to the latest images from NASAs Galileo spacecraft, and the discovery may explain why the Galileo Probe found less water than expected when it dropped into the Jovian atmosphere on Dec. 7, 1995. The Probe, Built by Hughes Space and Communications Company, survived for almost an hour in Jupiters hosti le atmosphere, as it relayed data to the Galileo Orbiter more than 130,000 miles overhead. The latest data from the Galileo Orbiter also shed new light on the auroras that glow in a narrow ring around the poles of Jupiter. Auroral arc on Jupiter is thin and patchy, and its altitude is between 300 and 600 kilometers (186 and 372 miles). Jupiters AtmosphereThe cloud materials are only minor constituents of a much more extensive atmosphere of clear gas. The gas is mostly hydrogen and helium, whereas the clouds condense from ammonia, water vapor, and other minor compounds. Jupiters atmospheric composition is about four-fifths hydrogen and one-fifth helium by mass. The hydrogen and helium are thought to be a fossil atmosphere of the gas that surrounded all the planets as they formed. Infrared radiation reveals Jupiters temperature in the upper atmosphere to be very cold because of the planets great distance from the Sun about 133 K (-220 degrees F), on both the sunlit and nighttime sides. At a lower level, the poisonous clouds are warmer. Gaps in the clouds have revealed still lower haze layers with even higher temperatures of around 250 K (-9 degrees F). The lower regions may resemble the hydrogen-compound-rich primordial atmosphere of earth when terrestrial life originated. A recent model of Jupiters atmosphere call s for temperatures similar to those at Earths surface at a level of about 60 km below the Jovian cloud tops, where the pressure would be about 10 times Earths surface pressure. Such conditions might be hospitable to primitive life, but most scientists doubt that any life forms exist on Jupiter. Future space probes to Jupiter may clarify this. IOs pictures from the main SpacecraftIo can be classified as one of the most unusual moons in our solar system. Active volcanism on Io was the greatest unexpected discovery at Jupiter. It was the first time active volcanoes had been seen on another body in the solar system. Plumes from the volcanoes extend to more than 300 kilometers (190 miles) above the surface, with material being ejected at speeds up to a kilometer (.6 miles) per second. .ue413169abf300ab64f74ea030de2103a , .ue413169abf300ab64f74ea030de2103a .postImageUrl , .ue413169abf300ab64f74ea030de2103a .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ue413169abf300ab64f74ea030de2103a , .ue413169abf300ab64f74ea030de2103a:hover , .ue413169abf300ab64f74ea030de2103a:visited , .ue413169abf300ab64f74ea030de2103a:active { border:0!important; } .ue413169abf300ab64f74ea030de2103a .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ue413169abf300ab64f74ea030de2103a { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ue413169abf300ab64f74ea030de2103a:active , .ue413169abf300ab64f74ea030de2103a:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ue413169abf300ab64f74ea030de2103a .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ue413169abf300ab64f74ea030de2103a .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ue413169abf300ab64f74ea030de2103a .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ue413169abf300ab64f74ea030de2103a .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ue413169abf300ab64f74ea030de2103a:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ue413169abf300ab64f74ea030de2103a .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ue413169abf300ab64f74ea030de2103a .ue413169abf300ab64f74ea030de2103a-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ue413169abf300ab64f74ea030de2103a:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: John kerry EssayIos volcanoes are apparently due to heating of the satellite by tidal pumping. Io is perturbed in its orbit by Europa and Ganymede, two other large satellites nearby, then pulled back again into its regular orbit by Jupiter. This tug-of-war results in tidal bulging as great as 100 meters (330 feet) on Ios surface. Io is composed primarily of rocky material with very little iron. Io is located within an intense radiation belt of electrons and ions trapped in Jupiters magnetic field. As the magnetosphere rotates with Jupiter, it sweeps past Io and strips away about 1,000 kilograms (1 ton) of material per second. The material forms a torus, a doughnut shaped cloud of ions that glow in the ultraviolet. The toruss heavy ions migrate outward, and their pressure inflates the Jovian magnetosphere to more than twice its expected size. Some of the more energetic sulphur and oxygen ions fall along the magnetic field into the planets atmosphere, resulting in auroras. B.Cassini ProbeCassini scientists have been busy planning what science they will do when they get near Saturn. Perhaps Cassini will discover new moons of Saturn, or a strange magnetic field anomaly that deserves further study. However, there are all sorts of opportunities for Cassini. Cassini could go into orbit around Saturns largest moon. Titan, or even use its gravity assist to escape Saturn altogether. It may even be possible for Cassini to go to another planet or visit an asteroid (though its likely that this would take many years to do ). However, the Saturn system is interesting enough and may even have some mission surprises. After the probe is released in early November, the orbited performs a propulsive maneuver to target for the flyby and delay its arrival to Titan so that it can have the proper geometry to view the probe descent region. During the probe mission, the orbited will fly above Titan and listen with its High Gain Antenna (HGA) for data transmitted by the probe. This data must be first stored on the orbiters Solid State Recorder before it can be downlinked to Earth later. The project has a number of strategies, including downlinking the problem data multiple times, to ensure that the probe data gets to Earth with no problems. As the Huygens probe breaks through the cloud deck, a camera will capture pictures of the Titan panorama. Other instruments will directly measure the organic chemistry in Titans atmosphereproviding the equivalent of a time machine to examine the chemistry of the early Earth. Instruments will also be used to study properties of Titans surface remotely, and perhaps even directly after landing on the surface. After the probe mission is completed, the spacecraft will turn the HGA to Earth and begin transmitting the recorded probe data. The data will even be transmitted twice and be verified on the ground before it can be overwritten on the data recorders. Once the data is verified, the probe mission is considered to be complete. Many scientists theorize that Titan may be covered by lakes or oceans of methane or ethane. This remains a mystery; the laws of thermodynamics say such oceans should exist, while radar studies conducted from Earth have turned up no evidence of them. Theories from the study of tidal motions suggest that Titan should either be covered by all oceans or all land, but nothing in between. The resolution of this puzzle is up to Cassini.